T5 Fat Burners contain the following scientifically formulated ingredients: Bitter Orange (Citrus Aurantium, Synoprene), Caffeine Anhydrose, Phenylethylamine, Guarana, Green Tea 40% Extract and N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine. As we don't believe in making product claims without backing these up by scientific data, the following is an extensive list of the published clinical studies & scientific reports of the T5 Fat Burners formula, broken up by section into the specific ingredients. The formula is standardised and certified for the highest precision potencies.

    Bitter Orange (Citrus Aurantium, Synoprene)

  1. "Citrus × aurantium L.". Germplasm Resources Information Network. United States Department of Agriculture. 1999-12-17. Retrieved 2010-01-05.
  2. Hess AM, Sullivan DL (March 2005). "use of bitter orange extract and guarana for weight loss". The Annals of pharmacotherapy 39 (3): 574–5. doi:10.1345/aph.1E249. PMID 15657116.
  3. Duenwald, Mary (2005-10-11). "Bitter Orange Under Scrutiny as New Ephedra". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  4. "Bitter Orange". National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. April 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-03.
  5. Sharpe PA, Granner ML, Conway JM, Ainsworth BE, Dobre M (December 2006). "Availability of weight-loss supplements: Results of an audit of retail outlets in a southeastern city". Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106 (12): 2045–51. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2006.09.014. PMID 17126636.
  6. Bui LT, Nguyen DT, Ambrose PJ (January 2006). "Blood pressure and heart rate effects following a single dose of bitter orange". The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 40 (1): 53–7. doi:10.1345/aph.1G488. PMID 16317106.
  7. Bitter Orange: Information from the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine - http://nccam.nih.gov/health/bitterorange/
  8. Caffeine Anhydrose

  9. Nehlig, A; Daval, JL; Debry, G (1992). "Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects". Brain Research Reviews 17 (2): 139–70. doi:10.1016/0165-0173(92)90012-B. PMID 1356551.
  10. Astorino, TA; Roberson, DW (2010 Jan). "Efficacy of acute caffeine ingestion for short-term high-intensity exercise performance: a systematic review.". Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 24 (1): 257–65. PMID 19924012.
  11. Bishop, D (2010-12-01). "Dietary supplements and team-sport performance.". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 40 (12): 995–1017. PMID 21058748.
  12. Tarnopolsky, MA (2010). "Caffeine and creatine use in sport.". Annals of nutrition & metabolism 57 Suppl 2: 1–8. PMID 21346331.
  13. Davis, JK; Green, JM (2009). "Caffeine and anaerobic performance: ergogenic value and mechanisms of action.". Sports medicine (Auckland, N.Z.) 39 (10): 813–32. PMID 19757860.
  14. Snel, J; Lorist, MM (2011). "Effects of caffeine on sleep and cognition.". Progress in Brain Research 190: 105–17. PMID 21531247.
  15. Nehlig, A (2010). "Is caffeine a cognitive enhancer?". Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD 20 Suppl 1: S85-94. PMID 20182035.
  16. Ker K, Edwards PJ, Felix LM, Blackhall K, Roberts I (2010). "Caffeine for the prevention of injuries and errors in shift workers". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5): CD008508. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008508. PMID 20464765.
  17. Fredholm BB, Bättig K, Holmén J, Nehlig A, Zvartau EE (1999). "Actions of caffeine in the brain with special reference to factors that contribute to its widespread use". Pharmacol Rev 51 (1): 83–133. PMID 10049999.
  18. Armstrong, Lawrence E.; Casa, Douglas J.; Maresh, Carl M.; Ganio, Matthew S. (2007). "Caffeine, Fluid-Electrolyte Balance, Temperature Regulation, and Exercise-Heat Tolerance". Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews 35 (3): 135–140. doi:10.1097/jes.0b013e3180a02cc1. PMID 17620932.
  19. "Caffeine Content of Food and Drugs". Nutrition Action Health Newsletter. Center for Science in the Public Interest. December 1996. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. Retrieved 2009-08-03.
  20. "caffeine biosynthesis". The Enzyme Database. Trinity College Dublin. Retrieved 2011-09-24.
  21. Klosterman L (2006). The Facts About Caffeine (Drugs). Benchmark Books (NY). p. 43. ISBN 0-7614-2242-0.
  22. Fisone G, Borgkvist A, Usiello A (2004). "Caffeine as a psychomotor stimulant: mechanism of action". Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 61: 857–72. doi:10.1007/s00018-003-3269-3.
  23. McArdle, William (2010). Exercise Physiology. 7th edition. Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. p. 559. ISBN 9780781797818.
  24. Liguori, A (1997). "Absorption and Subjective Effects of Caffeine from Coffee, Cola and Capsules". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 58: 721–6. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(97)00003-8.
  25. "Caffeine". The Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Knowledge Base. Retrieved 2010-10-25.
  26. Phenylethylamine

  27. Sabelli, Hector C.; J. I. Javaid (February 1, 1995). "Phenylethylamine modulation of affect: therapeutic and diagnostic implications". J Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci 7 (1): 6–14. ISSN 0895-0172. PMID 7711493.
  28. EM Parker and LX Cubeddu (04/01/1988). "Comparative effects of amphetamine, phenylethylamine and related drugs". Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics 245 (1): 199–210. ISSN 0022-3565. PMID 3129549.
  29. Liebowitz, Michael, R. (1983). The Chemistry of Love. Boston: Little, Brown, & Co.
  30. Sabelli, Hector C.; et al. (1978). "Phenylethylamine and brain function". Biochem Pharmacol. 27 (13): 1707–11. doi:10.1016/0006-2952(78)90543-9. ISSN 0006-2952. PMID 361043.
  31. Guarana

  32. Sale C, Harris RC, Delves S, Corbett J (May 2006). "Metabolic and physiological effects of ingesting extracts of bitter orange, green tea and guarana at rest and during treadmill walking in overweight males". Int J Obes (Lond) 30 (5): 764–73. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803209. PMID 16418760.
  33. Anderson T, Foght J (2001). "Weight loss ... following a South American herbal preparation in overweight patients". J Hum Nutr Diet 14 (3): 243. doi:10.1046/j.1365-277X.2001.00290.x. PMID 11424516.
  34. Johannes, Laura (March 2, 2010). "Can a Caffeine-Packed Plant Give a Boost?". The Wall Street Journal: p. D3.
  35. Ashihara H, Sano H, Crozier A (February 2008). "Caffeine and related purine alkaloids: biosynthesis, catabolism, function and genetic engineering". Phytochemistry 69 (4): 841–56. doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.10.029. PMID 18068204.
  36. Moffett M, Deogun N (11 July 1999). "Guarana's potent reputation makes consumers drink it up". The Wall Street Journal (South Coast Today). Retrieved 2011-05-26.
  37. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB (January 2007). "A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioral effects of guaraná in humans". J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford) 21 (1): 65–70. doi:10.1177/0269881106063815. PMID 16533867.
  38. Terpstra AH; Beynen AC; Everts H; Kocsis S; Katan MB; Zock PL (2002 May). "The decrease in body fat in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid is due to increases in energy expenditure and energy loss in the excreta". J Nutr 132 (5): 940–5. PMID 11983818.
  39. Bempong DK, Houghton PJ, Steadman K (1993). "The xanthine content of guarana and its preparations". Int. J. Pharmacog. 31 (3): 175–81. doi:10.3109/13880209309082937. ISSN 0925-1618.
  40. "Energy Drinks" (PDF). University of California, Davis. April 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-18.
  41. Guarana at USDA database - http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl?Paullinia%20cupana
  42. Green Tea 40% Extract

  43. Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, Girardier L, Mensi N, Fathi M, Chantre P, Vandermander J (1999). "Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5. PMID 10584049.
  44. Nagao T, Komine Y, Soga S, et al. (January 2005). "Ingestion of a green tea rich in catechins leads to a reduction in body fat and malondialdehyde-modified LDL in men". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 81 (1): 122–9. PMID 15640470.
  45. Venables, Michelle C; Hulston, Carl J; Cox, Hannah R; Jeukendrup, Asker E (March 2008). "Green tea extract ingestion, fat oxidation, and glucose tolerance in healthy humans". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 87 (3): 778–784. PMID 18326618. Retrieved 2008-10-25.
  46. The Tea Guardian. "Health Benefits of Green Tea". Retrieved 21 December 2010.
  47. Cabrera C, Artacho R, Giménez R (April 2006). "Beneficial effects of green tea--a review". J Am Coll Nutr 25 (2): 79–99. PMID 16582024.
  48. Maron DJ, Lu GP, Cai NS, et al. (June 2003). "Cholesterol-lowering effect of a theaflavin-enriched green tea extract: a randomized controlled trial". Arch. Intern. Med. 163 (12): 1448–53. doi:10.1001/archinte.163.12.1448. PMID 12824094.
  49. Emad Al-Dujaili, Jon-Paul Bradley, Suzana Almoosawi & Lorna Fyfe (2009). "Effects of green tea consumption on blood pressure, total cholesterol, body weight and fat in healthy volunteers". Endocrine Abstracts 20: P470.
  50. "Israeli researchers show that green tea has rejuvenating effect on damaged brain cells | health". Israel21c.org. 2007-10-14. Retrieved 2011-03-14.
  51. Sueoka N, Suganuma M, Sueoka E, et al. (April 2001). "A new function of green tea: prevention of lifestyle-related diseases". Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 928: 274–80. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2001.tb05656.x. PMID 11795518.
  52. Kuriyama S, Hozawa A, Ohmori K, et al. (February 2006). "Green tea consumption and cognitive function: a cross-sectional study from the Tsurugaya Project 1". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 83 (2): 355–61. PMID 16469995.
  53. Kimura K, Ozeki M, Juneja LR, Ohira H (January 2007). "L-Theanine reduces psychological and physiological stress responses". Biol Psychol 74 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.06.006. PMID 16930802.
  54. Dulloo AG, Duret C, Rohrer D, et al. (December 1999). "Efficacy of a green tea extract rich in catechin polyphenols and caffeine in increasing 24-h energy expenditure and fat oxidation in humans". Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 70 (6): 1040–5. PMID 10584049.
  55. Overview of numerous scientific studies investigating the health benefits of green tea - http://www.xuantea.com/info/tea-benefits/i37/tea-benefits.aspx
  56. N-Acetyl-L-Carnitine

  57. Zeyner A, Harmeyer J (1999). "Metabolic functions of L-carnitine and its effects". Archiv Für Tierernährung 52 (2): 115–38. PMID 10548966.
  58. Cao Y, Wang YX, Liu CJ, Wang LX, Han ZW, Wang CB (2009). "Comparison of pharmacokinetics of L-carnitine, acetyl-L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine after single oral administration of L-carnitine in healthy volunteers". Clinical and Investigative Medicine 32 (1): E13–9. PMID 19178874.
  59. Rebouche CJ (November 2004). "Kinetics, pharmacokinetics, and regulation of L-carnitine and acetyl-L-carnitine metabolism". Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1033: 30–41. doi:10.1196/annals.1320.003. PMID 15591001.
  60. Longnus SL, Wambolt RB, Barr RL, Lopaschuk GD, Allard MF (October 2001). "Regulation of myocardial fatty acid oxidation by substrate supply". American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology 281 (4): H1561–7. PMID 11557544.
  61. Kiens B (January 2006). "Skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in exercise and insulin resistance". Physiological Reviews 86 (1): 205–43. doi:10.1152/physrev.00023.2004. PMID 16371598.
  62. Lopaschuk GD, Gamble J (October 1994). "The 1993 Merck Frosst Award. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase: an important regulator of fatty acid oxidation in the heart". Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 72 (10): 1101–9. PMID 7882173.
  63. Stephens FB, Constantin-Teodosiu D, Greenhaff PL (June 2007). "New insights concerning the role of carnitine in the regulation of fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle". The Journal of Physiology 581 (Pt 2): 431–44. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2006.125799. PMC 2075186. PMID 17331998.
  64. Carnitine (L-carnitine), University of Maryland Medical Center - http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/carnitine-l-000291.htm

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